VSC – supercomputers

  • Article written by Claudia Blaas-Schenner (VSC Team)
    (last update 2020-10-10 by cb).

OUTLINE:

  • VSC – Vienna Scientific Cluster
    $~$
  • Supercomputers for beginners –
    – introducing VSC to our (new) users
    • Supercomputers for beginners – what is a supercomputer ?
    • VSC systems – what do they look like ?
    • VSC-4 – components of a supercomputer
    • Parallel hardware architectures –
      – which parallel programming models can be used ?
    • VSC compute nodes
    • VSC node-interconnect
    • VSC-3 ping-pong – intra-node vs. inter-node

VSC – Vienna Scientific Cluster

  • The VSC is a joint high performance computing (HPC) facility of Austrian universities.
  • Our mission: Within the limits of available resources we satisfy the HPC needs of our users.
  • VSC is primarily devoted to research.
  • Who can use VSC? Scientific personnel of the partner universities, see: https://vsc.ac.at/access VSC is open to users from other Austrian academic and research institutions.
  • Projects (test, funded, …): Access to VSC is granted on the basis of peer-reviewed projects.
  • Project manager (= usually your supervisor): Project application, extensions, creates user accounts, …
  • Publications: Please acknowledge VSC and add publications $~~$➠$~~$ visible on VSC homepage !
VSC links: Information provided:
➠$~~$https://vsc.ac.at VSC homepage (general info)
➠$~~$https://service.vsc.ac.at VSC service website (application)
➠$~~$https://wiki.vsc.ac.at VSC user documentation
➠$~~$ VSC user support $~$&$~$ contact

Supercomputers for beginners

  • What is a supercomputer ?
  • A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance as compared to a general-purpose computer. The performance of a supercomputer is commonly measured in floating-point operations per second (FLOPS)… [from Wikipedia]

  • A supercomputer is listed in the TOP500
TOP500 GREEN500 (#1 TOP500)
VSC-1 (2009) 35 TFlop/s 156 (11/2009) 94 (06/2009) 1.8 PFlop/s #1 (11/2009)
VSC-2 (2011) 135 TFlop/s 56 (06/2011) 71 (06/2011) 8 PFlop/s #1 (06/2011)
VSC-3 (2014) 596 TFlop/s 85 (11/2014) 86 (11/2014) 33 PFlop/s #1 (11/2014)
VSC-3 (………) 596 TFlop/s 461 (11/2017) 175 (11/2017) 93 PFlop/s #1 (11/2017)
VSC-4 (2019) 2.7 PFlop/s 82 (06/2019) ——— 148 PFlop/s #1 (06/2019)
VSC-4 (………) 2.7 PFlop/s 105 (06/2020) ——— 415 PFlop/s #1 (06/2020)

VSC systems – what do they look like ?


VSC-4 – components of a supercomputer


$~$

  • login nodes vs. compute nodes
  • shared (login, storage) vs. user exclusive (compute nodes -N $~$ | $~$ on VSC-4 optional shared nodes -n)

Parallel hardware architectures

how to connect cores (processing units) ?


VSC compute nodes

  • VSC-3, VSC-3+, and VSC-4 $~$ ➠ $~$ Intel CPUs $~$ ➠ $~$ different: $~$ types, $~$ memory, $~$ # cores, $~$ # HCAs
    plus special types of hardware (GPUs on VSC-3) see: talk on special hardware and talk on SLURM
    $~$
  • VSC-3: $~$ 1 node $~$ = $~$ 2 sockets (CPUs), 8 cores per socket (P), 2 threads per core (T1/T2) $~$ + $~$ 2 HCAs

  • intra-socket: 59.7 GB/s (max), inter-socket via QPI (QuickPath interconnect): 32 GB/s (max)
  • inter-node via dual rail Intel QDR-80: 4 GB/s (max) / 3.4 GB/s (eff) per HCA (host channel adapter)
  • Avoiding slow data paths is the key to most performance optimizations! $~~~$ ➠ $~$Affinity matters!$~$

processing units (PU#) $~~~$ ➠ pinning
see: article on SLURM and pinning@Wiki

memory hierarchy (mem_0064 nodes):
L1 data cache: 32 kB, private to core
L2 cache: 256 kB, private to core (unified)
L3 cache: 20 MB, shared by all cores of 1 socket
memory: 32 GB per socket


VSC node-interconnect schematic

INTENT VSC-XVSC-3 $~$ ➠ $~$ dual rail Intel QDR-80 <html><font color=#ffa500></html> $~$ ➠ $~$ <html></font></html> 3-level fat-tree (BF = 2:1 / 4:1)

INTENT VSC-XVSC-4 $~$ ➠ $~$ single rail Intel Omnipath <html><font color=#ff00ff></html> $~$ ➠ $~$ <html></font></html> 2-level fat-tree (BF = 2:1)


VSC-3 ping-pong – intra-node vs. inter-node

  • 1 node $~$ = $~$ 2 sockets with 8 cores per socket $~$ + $~$ 2 HCAs
  • inter-node $~$ = $~$ IB fabric = dual rail Intel QDR-80 = 3-level fat-tree (BF: 2:1 / 4:1)
  • ping-pong benchmark $~$ = $~$ module load $~$ intel/16.0.3 $~$ intel-mpi/5.1.3 $~$ | $~$ openmpi/1.10.2 $~$ (1 HCA)
  • MPI latency & bandwidth (plus typical values for comparison):

    VSC-3: latency [μs]   typical values for: latency bandwidth
    intra-socket 0.3 μs   L1 cache 1–2 ns 100 GB/s
    inter-socket 0.7 μs   L2/L3 c. 3–10 ns 50 GB/s
    IB -1- edge 1.4 μs   memory 100 ns 10 GB/s
    IB -2- leaf 1.8 μs   HPC networks
    IB -3- spine 2.3 μs   (per node / 2 HCAs) 1–10 μs 1–8 GB/s


  • pandoc/introduction-to-vsc/01_supercomputers_for_beginners/vsc_supercomputers.txt
  • Last modified: 2020/10/20 09:13
  • by pandoc